Once a clients are contemplating a new Plant, Project, pilot facility, new plant, or major process expansion, they typically have more and more questions than answers. Is it technically feasible? What is the best process configuration? Should it be batch or continuous? And yes a big question how much would it cost? Process is able to assist by providing experienced and knowledgeable chemical engineers that can identify, and systematically narrow down, and introduce to best and advance possible technical options for a given process goal. Once the viable technical options are identified, an economic evaluation is performed. Based on technical merits, system reliability, economics (capital and operating), and other factors, it usually becomes clear as to how the future process design should progress. At this point a conceptual design can be developed by process that includes preliminary process flow diagrams(PFDs), mass & energy balances, a list of major equipment, and a rough order of the magnitude cost estimate the process can also assist at this point in identifying potential risks associated with the design (weak areas in the design basis, insufficient lab data etc.) so that a plan can be developed to address these issues prior to or during the next phase of the project and start the basic engineering .
Identification Phase (Conceptual Process Design or Screening Study):-
All the industrial project opportunities can target revenue growth for region and country; expense reductions; strategic growth; or improved reliability and/or efficiency. Clients typically identify opportunities by evaluating the value and identifying key risks and uncertainties. It is very important to evaluate opportunities on a consistent basis for comparison purposes. The basis for the first decision gate is a high level screening study and analysis or conceptual process design study. This level of work involves identifying promising chemical conversion pathways or major licensed technologies if available, narrowing the project down to one or more options, identifying major equipment, developing block flow diagrams, and generating an Order of Magnitude capital cost estimate range and proceed to quotation.
A: Appraisal (Alternatives Evaluation):-
During the start of appraisal phase of the EPC turnkey project a series of process alternatives is developed and further assessment of the process value, risk, and uncertainty is conducted. Some examples may include alternatives such as batch versus continuous processing depends on client, use of different types of separation techniques (extraction versus distillation, pressure filtration versus a centrifuge), The most promising development concepts progress forward to the Selection phase wise and further developments of the projects.
B: Selection(Preliminary Process Design):-
The main and basic objective of the Selection phase of the project is to identify a single process concept for progression to the Detailed Process Design phase of the project. Preparation of work deliverables requires that a single process concept must be selected and further developed during this phase. Once a concept has been selected and approved, team will complete the level of detail necessary formalities to develop the cost estimate and preliminary project schedule with a typical accuracy of –30% to +50%.
Deliverables at this stage often include the following stages below:
- The Preliminary Process Design Basis
- The Process Alternatives Evaluations Summary
- The preliminary Process Simulation and Heat and Material Balance Data
- The Preliminary Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)
- The Preliminary Equipment List
- The Preliminary Major Equipment Conditions of Service List
- The Preliminary Capital and Operating Cost Estimate (+50% /-30%)
- The Preliminary Summary of Raw Materials and Utility Requirements
- The Process Risk Summary.